October 3, 2022

What is Solana? Guide for Beginners

7 min read

As ingenious as it might be, blockchain innovation deals with particular challenges, consisting of high charges, scalability issues, low throughput, and more.

Several jobs in the DeFi space contend to end up being the very first web-scalable blockchain and ensure that users have the best experience by taking on these typical problems.

One of these, which is getting traction in the DeFi neighborhood, is Solana. This open-source, censorship-resistant blockchain leverages a thorough set of innovations to enhance scalability and provide a robust network for building decentralized applications (dApps).

What is Solana?

Solana is a decentralized protocol for developing dApps with a reported throughput of 65,000 transactions per 2nd (TPS) thanks to its distributed computing system.

Unlike a lot of protocols that keep up the Proof of Stake (PoS) or Proof of Work (PoW) mechanism, Solana uses the Proof of History (PoH) – – a new cryptographic mechanism that magnifies scalability while keeping network security.

Solana is amongst the few layer-one options efficient in supporting thousands of deals per second without having to implement 2nd layers or off-chains.

Solana’s Key Technologies

Proof of History, a Cryptographic Clock

PoH is Solana’s consensus system. It is a series of computations that offers a digital record to prove that an event happened on the network at any provided time.


Think about it as a cryptographic clock that gives a timestamp to every deal in the network together with the information structure, which can be a basic append of data. PoH relies on Proof of Stake, utilizing the Tower BFT algorithm for agreement, which works like an additional tool to validate transactions. At its core, PoH is a high-frequency Verifiable Delay Function (VDF).

A VDF is a triple function (Setup, Evaluation, Verification) to produce a special and trustable output. It keeps order in the network by showing block manufacturers have waited an enough quantity of time so the network can move on.

In Solana’s case, it uses SHA256 (Secure Hash Algorithm 256-bit) – – a set of patented cryptographic functions that outputs a value 256 bits long (which is also the one Bitcoin usages). The Solana network periodically samples the count and hashes of the SHA256, offering real-time information advised by the set of hashes consisted of on CPUs.

Validators can utilize this sequence of hashes to tape a specific piece of information created before a particular hash index is produced. The timestamp for transactions is generated when this piece of data is placed.

Solana claims to reach a throughput of 65,000 TPS, with an average block time of 400 milliseconds and a typical transaction charge of 0.000005 SOL (Solana’s native token). To accomplish these numbers, all validators on the network have a cryptographic clock to keep an eye on occasions instead of awaiting other nodes to validate transactions.

Tower BFT

Tower BFT is an enhanced variation of the Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT) protocol that keeps the network secure and running. This system is Solana’s underlying consensus that leverages the PoH cryptographic clock.

Tower BFT addresses certain problems like the cost of rollbacks, various ASIC speeds between nodes, or the danger related to reward-based votes.


Turbine is a block proliferation protocol that leverages the network by breaking data down into packets dispersed with a small amount of bandwidth, permitting nodes to carry out better using less power.


Clusters are groups of validators with various functions, however their main task is to collaborate by serving customer transactions. According to Solana, Clusters might exist side-by-side, and when 2 clusters share a typical genesis block, they attempt to converge.

Gulf Stream

The Gulf Stream refers to Solana’s mempool-less forwarding procedure. A mempool is a cryptocurrency node’s mechanism for keeping unconfirmed transactions prior to they are added to the blockchain.


Pipelining is a multiple deal processing system that creates different stages for each CPU to finish its job. This method is frequently utilized in CPU design.

History and Foundation of Solana

Solana was founded in 2017 by Anatoly Yakovenko, a former engineer at international Qualcomm. He published the Solana Whitepaper that same year with the idea of producing a dispersed system with a brand-new algorithm that could develop on and improve the primarily used Proof of Stake and Proof of Work blockchains.

This is how Proof of History (PoH) was born, a timekeeping method to encode the passage of time within the data structure.

The Solana ICO

Yakovenko joined his coworkers Greg Fitzgerald and Eric Williams to launch Solana, creating a prototype testnet a year later on while also founding Solana Labs– based in San Francisco, California.

The task debuted by means of an Initial Coin Offering (ICO), raising over $25.6 million in March 2020. In June 2021, however, Solana Labs also raised $314 million for further advancement of the network.

Ever since, it has turned into one of the fastest-growing protocols in the DeFi space. In 2021, the protocol captured the market’s attention not even if of its technology but likewise because of the excellent performance of its native SOL token, which exploded in value.

The Team Behind Solana

Apart from the charter member Yakovenko, Fitzgerald, and Williams, the project handled to onboard well-known designers and management personnel.

The team behind the Solana Foundation, a non-profit company headquartered in Switzerland, promotes and deals with worldwide partners to support Solana. Solana Labs, on the other hand, looks after the protocol’s advancement.

Solana Backers and Ecosystem

Solana’s debut brought in high-profile business in the blockchain and DeFi area, along with institutional capital, including Multicoin Capital, CMCC, Tether, Chainlink, Serum, and more.

Over 231 business are currently included in Solana’s community, ranging from various markets. Some to point out are AMMs (Automated Market Makers – – Serum), oracles (ChainLink, Gravity, Switchboard, Band Protocol, and Nozomi), stablecoin tasks, Wallets, and exchanges.

The SOL Token

SOL is Solana’s native and energy token, utilized to stake and to pay for transaction fees. It is an inflationary token but designed with a reducing supply and a 1.5% annual inflation rate.

SOL was launched in March 2020 amid the beta testnet release and has actually aimed to become one of the leading cryptocurrencies.

As discussed before, SOL has carried out exceptionally well in 2021 and even ended up being the 7th largest cryptocurrency by ways of overall market capitalization (as of September 2021).

As of composing these lines, roughly 18 months following the ICO, the SOL token’s cost is 725x its ICO token rate of $0.22

Solana’s Competitors

Solana has strived in the DeFi world to become a legitimate rival of industry leaders such as Ethereum, Polkadot, and Binance (BSC).

We can compare them to see what benefits and drawbacks each one has.

Solana is apparently capable of reaching a processing speed of over 60,000 TPS. This makes it one of the fastest blockchains to take on other industries beyond the DeFi area.

Ethereum, for example, can just manage 16 TPS. Solana has the benefit here:

  • A various agreement algorithm to prevent slow deal verification.
  • A brand-new tokenomics for lower charges.
  • A general much better user experience.

Nevertheless, Ethereum has actually remained in the spotlight of the DeFi neighborhood as Ethereum 2.0 is being established. ETH 2.0 is an upgrade that everyone in the DeFi community is expecting– it can highly improve scalability, lower fees, and increase the throughput.

An essential function that has actually brought in designers is Solana’s hybrid system to solve normal blockchain issues, like PoH, which reduces the time between transactions and strengthens network security.

Here’s a key function we require to understand about Solana that distinguishes it from other blockchains: it’s non-linear, and its hybrid system and innovation are impacting the DeFi significantly.

The Rise of NFTs on Solana

Solana has been expanding in appeal in 2021, primarily due to the fact that of the huge increase in its rate. At the time of this writing, in October 2021, the cryptocurrency is up around 8000% in regards to YTD gains.

A lot of it came thanks to the explosive development of non-fungible tokens on Solana’s blockchain. The reason people preferred it over Ethereum was simple– it was more affordable and a lot quicker– users could mint NFTs at little to no cost, and there were hundreds of jobs that removed.

A few of them, such as the Degenerate Ape Academy task, included NFTs that cost over $1 million at the time. For example, one cryptocurrency venture capital fund, Moonrock Capital, acquired the 13th rarest ape for a massive 5980 SOL, which at the time was worth $1.1 million.

An NFT of an ape Sold for 5980 SOL or over $1 million

The Downsides and Challenges of Solana

Yet Solana has inevitable problems it requires to take on. While the protocol might contend against high-profile blockchain projects, it’s still susceptible to centralization as there are not that many validators of the blockchain.

This is something that Solana has actually been criticized for: anyone on the network can end up being a validator, however doing so is difficult as it requires high computational resources.

This contributes to why the protocol still identifies itself as a beta mainnet; specific bugs, codes, and hold-ups could be present. Yet developers and projects are still concerning the network to construct or become part of it, like Solstarter, Serum Swaw, or Raydium.

Together with that, the network had actually seen 2 significant blackouts throughout the month of September. The 2nd failure took hours to sort until enough network validators updated their version.


Despite its drawdowns, Solana is a high-performance blockchain that got the attention of the community.

It has the support of some of the best-known names in the industry and, despite some of its difficulties, appears to be on the ideal track of growing.

In a brief time period, Solana turned into one of the most used platforms for numerous DeFi applications and was at the center of the NFT boom in 2021.